Fixing Instruction

Fixing Instruction (2015)

Maiorana, V. P. (2015). Fixing instruction – Resolving major issues with a core
body of knowledge for critical instruction. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

CONTENTS
Preface xi
Acknowledgments xiii
Introduction xv

1 (Issue 1) The Profession Lacks a Language of Instruction 1
Subject-Matter Objective 1
The Special Meaning of Common Terms 2
General Definitions of the Terms “Strategy,” “Technique,”
and “Method” 3
The Terms “Strategy,” “Technique,” and “Method”
in the Education Culture 4
Education Dictionaries 4
Teacher Preparation Programs 5
Departments of Education 6
Educational Associations 8
Accreditation and Assessment Organizations 9
Standards Organizations 9
Summary of Findings 10
Consequences of Confusion 11
A New Language of Instruction 12
Conclusion 18
Building the Core 18
Notes 18
References 19

2
2 (Issue 2) Instructional Practice Is Inherently Weak—The Hidden Story
23
Subject-Matter Objective 23
Serialism 23
Serialism in Everyday Life 24
Serialism in the Classroom 25
Use of Serialism-Based Instructional Techniques 26
Positive Consequences of Serialism-Based Strategy 34
Negative Consequences of Serialism-Based Strategy 37
Conclusion 39
Building the Core 40
Notes 40
References 41

3 (Issue 3) The Critical-Thinking Movement Has Not Overcome Serialism
43
Subject-Matter Objective 43
Early Written Origins of Critical Thinking 44
Critical Thinking Views of Educators in the Modern Era 49
Summary of Early and Modern Views of Critical Thinking 52
When Ideas Collide—Critical Thinking and the Disciplines 53
Models of Critical Thinking for the Classroom 54
The Nature of Understanding and Comprehension 56
Bloom’s Dilemma 57
Taxonomic Variations 58
Introduction to Mind Grammar 60
Pathways to Deeper Comprehension 64
Conclusion 66
Building the Core 66
Notes 67
References 67

4 (Issue 4) Teacher Preparation Does Not Address Critical Learning and Instruction 73
Subject-Matter Objective 73
Foundation Preparation of Doctors, Engineers, Lawyers,
and Teachers 73
Preparation of Teachers 77
Summary of Observations 83

3
Teacher-Preparation Program Effectiveness 83
Conclusion 84
Building the Core 85
Notes 85
References 86

5 (Issue 5) The Profession Has No Standards for Thinking 89
Subject-Matter Objective 89
Teacher-Educator Standards 89
Standards of Programs that Accredit and Assess
Teacher Preparation 90
Teacher Standards 93
Common Core Student Standards 98
Summary of Standards for Teacher Educators, Teachers, and Students 100
Thinking Standards for the Profession and for Students 101
Conclusion 101
Building the Core 103
Notes 103
References 104

6 Evidence of How the Issues Block Critical Instruction and Learning 107
Subject-Matter Objective 107
Instructional Performance of Teacher Educators and College Faculty 107
Instructional Performance of School Faculty 109
Academic Achievement of High-School and College Students 110
Critical Thinking In and Out of the Classroom 112
Reform, Teacher Preparation, and the Place of Instructional Strategy 113
Summary of Evidence 115
Conclusion 116
Assembling the Core 116
Notes 117
References 117

7 Core Body of Knowledge for Critical Instruction 121
Subject-Matter Objective 121
Fixing Instruction: Summary of the Issues 121
Core Action Plan 122
Reach Agreement on a Language of Instruction 123

4
Use the Four Categories of Thinking in Teacher-Preparation Programs 123
Add Instructional Foundation Courses to Teacher Preparation Programs 127
Develop Thinking Standards for Teacher-Educators, Teachers, and Students
130
Integrate Thinking Operations into Student Standards 131
Consequences of Fixing Instruction 132
Notes 135
References 136

Glossary 137
Index 141
About the Author 151

*****